What Is Galvanic Isolation?
Galvanic isolation separates the input and output supplies to a device so that energy flows through a field rather than via electrical connections. It enables power transfer between two circuits that must not be connected.
In a UPS system, isolation transformers transfer AC current to connected equipment while isolating them from the power source. This protects against electric shock and suppresses harmful electrical noise.
Typically, transformer-based uninterruptible power supplies are the choice for industrial environments and medical applications that tend to demand Galvanic isolation. However, it is possible to add two isolation transformers to the input supplies of a transformerless UPS, which helps ensure complete neutral separation.
The image below outlines the simplest installation for a UPS with a single power supply and input. Figure 1 shows how an isolation transformer can be installed at point A, point B, or both (NB if point A, the transformer must be oversized in accordance with the UPS input supply rating).
Figure 2 highlights a more complex installation where the UPS has a dual input supply. In this case, the isolation transformer can be installed at point C, point D, or both.